Monday, March 23, 2020
Ebb and the Great Gatsby Essay Example Paper Ebb and the Great Gatsby Essay Introduction Assessment two. Love, hope and morality are ongoing and developing universal concepts that have the ability to imprison or liberate individuals. The interpretation and perceived value of experience of these concepts is dependent on the values and events of the time. Without a greater knowledge of the past, present and wider world, we often accept the two dimensional thoughts and perspectives of the time we inhabit. We can only fully reveal the value of experiences by comparing their differences. Ã¢â¬ËSonnets from the PortugueseÃ¢â¬â¢ written by Elizabeth Barrett Browning are a series of Petrarchan sonnets conveying love hope and morality. Composed in 1845 to 1846 England and published in 1850, the contextual integrity of the sonnets reflect the traditional values of courtly love at the time but also societal change and the modernisation that the industrial revolution brought with it. This was the time of the Victorian era, a time of ongoing societal evolution. Published in 1925 A merican, F. Scott FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s novel Ã¢â¬ËThe Great GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢ is set in 1922, a time period commonly referred to as the Ã¢â¬Ëthe Roaring twentiesÃ¢â¬â¢ or the Ã¢â¬Ëjazz ageÃ¢â¬â¢. This period in American history reflects the extremities of both romanticism and materialism, as well as a time of prosperity and the classic Ã¢â¬ËAmerican dreamÃ¢â¬â¢ due to the conclusion of world war one. Love, hope and morality are reflected through the naivety of the time. Although a time of great societal change, 1840Ã¢â¬â¢s England still held traditional values that are often associated with this period as being prudish, old fashioned and repressed. Elizabeth Barrett Browning pushed the boundaries of her time as it was previously unheard of that females would write about idealised love. Ebb and the Great Gatsby Essay Body Paragraphs With the increase of feminism Barrett Browning gained her popularity. The sonnets show her journey of accepting the love she has received. She states in sonnet thirteen Ã¢â¬Å"I cannot teach my hand to hold my spirits so far from myselfÃ¢â¬âmeÃ¢â¬â that I should bring the proof of love hid in me out of reach. Ã¢â¬ This is a rejection of conventional views of a womenÃ¢â¬â¢s devotion to her lover. She refuses to put her love into words for the easing of his mind and chooses what will benefit herself. Previous to this quote a caesura is used to highlight its intensity and depth, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not that she desires not to fathom her feelings into words, it is that she cannot. She does not see her love as quantifiable. With Brownings support of feminism she rejects the traditional connotations of courtly love. This is conveyed through her sonnets as she hopes for a love deeper than the superficial partnerships based on mutual social class that surrounded her. Sonnet 14 reflects th is with the repetition of Ã¢â¬ËloveÃ¢â¬â¢. She does not want to be wooed, she wants to be loved Ã¢â¬Å"nought except for loves sake only. Ã¢â¬ The mocking and condescending tone used shows emerging feminism of the time, she will not be held victim to the power of a man. These views highlight the ongoing theme of hope throughout the sonnets. With the industrial revolution came a modernised view of wealth. Big money moved from farming into factories and the manufacturing of goods. Materialism was evolving. Sonnet 43 titled Ã¢â¬Å"How do I love thee? Let me count the ways.Ã¢â¬ shows the perfect love between Browning and her lover paradoxically living in an imperfect world. When in the earlier sonnets she could not fathom into words her feelings for her lover, browning rejoices in saying Ã¢â¬Å"I love thee to the depth and breadth and height my soul can reach. I love thee freely. purely. with a passion. Ã¢â¬ She almost personifies her love giving it three dimensions. The an aphora of Ã¢â¬ËI love theeÃ¢â¬â¢ implies that her love is never ending and can be listed in an infinite number of ways. She supports this with the quote Ã¢â¬Å"I shall but love thee better after death. Ã¢â¬ She doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t love him for his wealth or material possessions; she loves him for loves sake. This is once again an example of how Elizabeth Barratt Browning challenges her society of the time as a gesture of morality; she rejects the views of the greater population that attraction should be towards money and possessions rather than the content of the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s character. While Elizabeth Barrett Browning continuously challenged the views and perspectives of her society, the characters portrayed in F. Scott FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËThe Great GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢ are the defined to ridiculous extents by the world around them rather than who they are. Comparatively to the strive for feminist rights in the Victorian era, the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s shows women as possessions; Ã¢â¬Ëtrophy wivesÃ¢â¬â¢. The American Dream of the time was the Ã¢â¬Ëself-made manÃ¢â¬â¢, a man who had built himself up to success and wealth, his life would be topped off with a beautiful wife and they would embrace their money together. Fitzgerald portrays Gatsby as the delineation of the American dream. He had everything; a beautiful house, stores of money and within his grasp was the beautiful Daisy Buchanan. Rather than loving Daisy for who she is, he loves the idea of her. He describes her voice as being Ã¢â¬Å"full of moneyÃ¢â¬ , what all Americans of the time wanted. Where Browning refused to believe that love was two dimensional, Fitzgerald describes his characters falling for the superficial nature of others rather than who they are. This is further defined through the way Tom Buchanan refers to his mistress as Ã¢â¬Ëmy girlÃ¢â¬â¢, this generalised name symbolises affection but also implies that she is one of Toms many possessions. The differences between the se two texts reveal more than their vague similarities about their common content area of love. Romanticism was an intricate part of the American dream during the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s. Fitzgerald describes over the top gestures of love throughout his novel and they are seen as ordinary. The romanticism, or idealised love, shown in the book indicates the acceptance of views at the time, a lack of morals in regards to marriage and an ongoing sense of hope in regards to desirable partners. The most obvious example of this is GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s ongoing quest to win Daisy over. He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t care that she is married with a family; he has built his life on the basis of impressing her and will stop at nothing to do so. Conversely Tom also shows his love for Myrtle through his money; they have a retreat in New York together and he buys her a puppy. Romanticism for males was about impressing their female counterparts with their riches, for the females it was about accepting that they were there as an accessory, to look pretty. The quote Ã¢â¬Å"for a moment the last sunshine fell with a romantic affection upon her glowing faceÃ¢â¬ represents the externalised values of romance as seen by Tom. Although he has a mistress he is still drawn to Daisies beauty. The characters quests for what they see as Ã¢â¬Ëidealised loveÃ¢â¬â¢ throughout the novel presents an ongoing juxtaposition of hope and morality. Unlike Browning, they do not hope to be loved Ã¢â¬Å"naught but for loves sake. Similar to the industrial revolution, post WW1 America was a time that valued material possessions. Social structure was defined by who you were, where you came from and how much money you had on show. Browning describes a journey of unmeasurable love through her Ã¢â¬ËSonnets from the PortugueseÃ¢â¬â¢ where the purity of love prevails over all else. This reflects the composerÃ¢â¬â¢s views of morality. Contrastingly the immorality of superficial relationships in Ã¢â¬ËThe Great GatsbyÃ¢â¬â ¢ show just how accepting the characters are of the time they are living in. Where Browning challenges the views of her society, Daisy and Tom Buchannan do the opposite. After Daisy hits and kills Myrtle Wilson, Gatsby takes the fall for her with an extreme gesture of his devotion. Daisy shows just how grateful she is for this gesture by never talking to Gatsby again. No matter how immoral it may be, Daisy and Tom willingly let Gatsby take the fall without thinking twice, this symbolises just how much materialism has shaped who they are as individuals. The pair retreat into the safety of their riches rejecting all else; the love Gatsby has for Daisy, the crime she has committed and even the loss Tom feels for Myrtle. Where Browning measured her love as reaching the depths of her soul, Fitzgerald portrays love to be immorally measured by the size of your wallet. Through challenging the values, ideas and perspectives of her time, BrowningÃ¢â¬â¢s experience of the basic human qualiti es love, hope and morality are highly enriching. The enrichment of these common themes is only revealed when the differences between BrowningÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËSonnets from the PortugueseÃ¢â¬â¢ and Fitzgeralds Ã¢â¬ËThe Great GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢ are compared. These differences reveal that whereas some individuals are trapped by the time they are living in, others are liberated. 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Friday, March 6, 2020
Mixed Metaphor Definition and Examples A mixed metaphor is a succession of incongruous or ludicrous comparisons. Also known- playfully- as a mixaphor. Although many style guides condemn the use of mixed metaphors, in practice most of the objectionable combinations (as in the examples below) are actually clichÃ ©s or dead metaphors. Examples An Apprentice contestant with a love of bizarre business lingo has left Twitter users in fits of laughter after describing a failed task as leaving a sour taste in the clients eye. Contestant Gary Poulton, from Birmingham, also said his team were dancing around the bush in last nights episode, which saw his stint as project manager for Versatile end in failure.(Phoebe Jackson-Edwards, Im Not Going to Dance Around the Bush: Apprentice Stars Bizarre Business Jargon Is Mocked on Twitter. Daily MailÃ [UK], November 26, 2015)Well have a lot of new blood holding gavels in Washington.(Georgia Congressman Jack Kingston, quoted in theÃ Savannah Morning News, November 3, 2010)Thats awfully thin gruel for the right wing to hang their hats on.(MSNBC, September 3, 2009)Her saucer-eyes narrow to a gimlet stare and she lets Mr. Clarke have it with both barrels.(Anne McElvoy, London Evening Standard, September 9, 2009)I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think we should wait until the other shoe drops. History has a lready shown what is likely to happen. The ball has been down this court before and I can see already the light at the end of the tunnel.(Detroit News, quoted in The New Yorker, November 26, 2012) [Chairman of the Federal Reserve Ben] Bernanke set the standard for muddled metaphors when he parried reporters questions that day. Certain economic data, he said, are guideposts that tell you how were going to be shifting the mix of our tools as we try to land this ship on ain a smooth way onto the aircraft carrier.(Nick Summers, Lost in Translation. Bloomberg Businessweek, July 8-14, 2013)Ã¢â¬Å"I conclude that the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s proposal to skim the frosting, pocket the cake, and avoid paying the fair, reasonable, and affordable value of the meal is a hound that will not hunt.(a labor arbitrator, quoted by the Boston Globe, May 8, 2010)Obviously, its been a very difficult two days for us, Nelson said. We kind of saw the writing on the wall Friday night. Its just apples versus oranges, and its not a level playing field by any means.(SeaburyÃ¢â¬â¢s Football Team Done for the Season. Lawrence Journal-World, September 22, 2009)The year began with quarterback Tom Brady tarred, then un chained from a suspension on the heels of cheating allegations in the scandal known as Deflategate.(Associated Press, Deflating Ending Sends Patriots Into Offseason. Savannah Morning News, January 26, 2016) Nigel said (using, to my mind, an excessive amount of metaphor), Youve taken a rare orchid and shut her away in a dark outhouse. You havent nourished her or paid her enough attention. Is it any wonder that her roots are struggling to survive? Daisy is a trapped bird whose wings have been broken, she is aÃ FabergÃ © egg that you have boiled for four minutes and eaten for your breakfast.I stopped him just as he was embarking on a new metaphor to do with Daisy being a submerged volcano.(Sue Townsend,Ã Adrian Mole: The Prostrate Years. Penguin, 2010)The committee was tired of stoking public outrage with fortnightly gobbets of scandal. It decided to publish everything it had left, warts and all. Now everyone is tarred with the same ugly brush, and the myth that forever simmers in the public consciousnessthat the House shelters 435 parasitic, fat-cat deadbeatshas received another shot of adrenalin.(Washington Post, 1992)I knew enough to realize that the alligators were in the swamp an d that it was time to circle the wagons.(attributed to Rush Limbaugh) A lot of success early in life can be a real liability- if you buy into it. Brass rings keep getting suspended higher and higher as you grow older. And when you grab them, they have a way of turning into dust in your hands. Psychologists...have all kinds of words for this, but the women I know seem to experience it as living life with a gun pointed to their heads. Every day brings a new minefield of incipient failure: the too-tight pants, the peeling wallpaper, the unbrilliant career.(Judith Warner, The New York Times, April 6, 2007)There is no man so low that he has in him no spark of manhood, which, if watered by the milk of human kindness, will not burst into flames.(quoted by Willard R. Espy in The Game of Words. Grosset Dunlap, 1972)Sir, I smell a rat; I see him forming in the air and darkening the sky; but Ill nip him in the bud.(attributed to Sir Boyle Roche, 1736-1807) Observations I am tempted to believe that the indiscriminate condemnation of mixed metaphors arises more often from pedantry than from common sense.(Edward Everett Hale, Jr. Constructive Rhetoric, 1896)[T]o the fertile mind that thinks up a series of comparisons one gives admirationand defense against those who misunderstand the ban on mixed metaphors.(Wilson Follett and Erik Wensberg, Modern American Usage, rev. ed. Macmillan, 1998)What is called mixed metaphor...is the coming into consciousness of a mixing that goes on all the time, a consciousness that offends our sensibilities because it calls attention to the device and perhaps might reveal the inexplicable bases of our worldview.(Dale Pesman, Some Expectations of Coherence in Culture Implied by the Prohibition of Mixed Metaphor. Beyond Metaphor: The Theory of Tropes in Anthropology. Stanford University Press, 1991)Mixed metaphors may be stylistically objectionable, but I cannot see that they are necessarily logically incoherent. Of course, most metaphors do occur in contexts of expressions used literally. It would be very hard to understand them if they did not. But it is not a logical necessity that every metaphorical use of an expression occurs surrounded by literal occurrences of other expressions and, indeed, many famous examples of metaphor are not.(Mark Johnson, Philosophical Perspectives on Metaphor. University of Minnesota Press, 1981) The Lighter Side of Mixed Metaphors Grace Adler:Ã You cant control your competitive nature any more than I can.Will Truman:Ã That is...Grace Adler:Ã Yes, you just like to play the cool Will Truman while Im all the intense crazy one. Well, once the bowling shoe is on the other foot, look whos the good cop and look whos the bad cop.Will Truman:Ã That is the worstÃ mixed metaphorÃ you have ever uttered.(Debra Messing and Eric McCormack, Alley Cats.Ã Will and Grace, 1999)
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
To live - Essay Example Therefore, one should need not give up on hope no matter the situation a person faces. The film has some of the conventional Chinese though like Confucianism and Buddhism. Additionally, the film shows the responsibilities of a person in life. The film outlines the life of Fungui during various Chinese periods, like Cultural Revolution and civil war. The conversation between Chun-sheng and Ji-Zhen expresses how important life is. When Chun-sheng killed the son to Fugui and Jia-Zhen, Jia-Zhen told Chung-shend that he hated him. Life signifies the You-qing death. However, at the end of the movie , when Chun-sheng lost hope in life due to the death of her wife but was encouraged by Jia-Zhen to live a strong life. Some of the conventional Chinese thought like Confucianism and Buddhism are offered the expression. In Buddhism, suffering arises due to human desires. Therefore, one needs to live a simpler life. In the film, we see Chun-send falling in love with cars. Driven by such a desire, he later becomes a driver after joining army. The experience of Fugui in the film shows the lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility, which is a belief from the Confucianism. At the start, Fugui failed to understand the responsibilities and hardship that come along in life (Yimou, (Director). 1994). After losing almost everything, Fugui realized that he needs to take responsibilities to take care of his family. He started earning a living as a puppeteer. When joined the army during the Cultural Revolution and civil war he kept saying that he had to live, he had to go home, he had a family that depended on him. The experience of Fugui shows that one needs to take responsibility in life irrespective of the condition that he faces. Ã¢â¬Å"To LiveÃ¢â¬ is a movie that is filled with hope. It show that even in difficult time when individual suffer emotionally and physically, they still have a strong life belief. It is believed that life will always be
Monday, February 3, 2020
The Worldwide Influence of Electronic Commerce - Essay Example Electronic commerce, EC, e-commerce or e-commerce consists primarily of the distributing, buying, selling, marketing, and servicing of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. The information technology industry might see it as an electronic business application aimed at commercial transactions. It can involve electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, e-marketing, online marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI), automated inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems. It typically uses electronic communications technology such as the Internet, extranets, e-mail, e-books, databases, and mobile phones. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E-commerce) Today, it has been proved that opening a website or getting a large number of hits on them is not enough to get the real business - for example, costs and revenues are also countable and not just website hits. An E-commerce business requires special consideration. On the other hand, it is essential to remember that all the business practices that apply in general business are not normally applicable to electronic commence. E-commerce can apply to purchases made through the Web or to business-to-business activities such as inventory transfers. A customer can order items from a vendor's Web site, paying with a credit card (the customer enters account information via the computer) or with a previously established "cybercash" account. The transaction information is transmitted (usually by modem) to a financial institution for payment clearance and to the vendor for order fulfillment. Personal and account information is kept confidential through the use of "secured transactions" that use encryption technology.
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Integumentary System Disorders This report discusses about disorders of integumentary system their pathophysiology, sign and symptoms and their medications. Skin is an organ of integumentary system which protects our body from several types of harms like it work as an umbrella for deeper tissues and it eliminates the wastes from body in the form of sweat and it also maintain the temperature of human body. Skin Human body is covered by a layer of skin, which has two main layers and it is accounts approximately 10 to 15% weight of human body. Skin works as a barrier against ultra violet radiations. Skin has two layers, epidermis is out and dermis is inner layer of skin. Hypodermis layer is made by adipose tissue thats why it is not consider as a major layer. Epidermis It is surface of the skin which is rest on the fatty subcutaneous layer. Epidermis has four layers stratum germinativum, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosam, and stratum corneum. It doesnt contain blood vessels and totally depends upon dermis for the transportation of nutrients and elimination of the waste. Dermis Dermis is inner layer of human body and it also has two layers papillary layer and reticular layer. Dermis is more complicated in structure. Reticular consists thick layer and thick combinative tissues with large blood vessels and papillary layer is made up of thin layer and loose connective tissues with capillaries and elastic fibres. Hypodermis It is the thickest and innermost layer of the skin which release chitinous cuticle. It is fat storage layer. Hypodermis works as an energy holding part of human body. It converts fat in energy and put back in the circulation and sent it to needy areas via venous route. Functions of skin Skin is the biggest organ of human body in surface and mass. Skin has three main functions. Sensation, regulation and protection. Sensation is a major function of skin, by this function we feels heat, cold, touch and pain. Regulation- skin maintains the body temperature via sweat and hair and also balances the body fluid via sweat. Skin works as a barrier for our body, it prevent our body form ultra violet rays and many bacterial infections. Disorders Stasis dermatitis It is a type of dermatitis. Stasis dermatitis is a common skin inflammatory disease occurs on below the ankles. It occurs due to poor blood circulation and in complicated cases it can progress in ulcers. Usually it happens when blood is collects in the veins of lower legs and that bloods increases pressure in the veins which harms the capillaries. This damage of capillaries forces the proteins to leak in the tissues. This leakage causes legs to swell. Thats why the people suffering with this disease usually have swollen legs, open sores itchy skin. Sign and symptoms A person who is suffering from this disease has some symptoms like in first stage the skin of legs become thin. Skin blemish Prickle Scaling Ulcers, sores Leg swelling Calf pain Heaviness in legs Medications Drug Brand name Dosage Side effects Triamcinolone Triderm, Kenalog 3-4 times daily on effected area. Irritation, hypertrichosis, itching. Pimecrolimus Elidel Apply thin layer q12hr on affected area. Burning sensation, headache. Tacrolimus ointment Protopic Apply thin layer q12hr on affected area. Skin erythema, headache, burning sensation. Cutaneous candidiasis Candidiasis is a skin disorder which occurs by the excessive growth of candida fungus on skin. The person who is suffering from this disease has red rash and itchy skin. In early stages it can be prevent by antifungal creams and powders. It may cause by hot weather, rare undergarment changes, poor hygiene and obesity. Usually candida fungi are developed in warm and moist areas like fold of skin, armpits, under breast and between the fingers. It can also effects nails. Sign and symptoms Ring worms Rash on body Crack on the fold areas Rash on genitals Patches of red and purple colour on hips and under breast. Medications Drug Brand name Dosage Side effects Miconazole fungoid tincture, cavilon antifungal cream Apply twice in a day without rubbing. Irritation, hypersensitivity. Terbinafine, topical Lamisil Apply on folding areas for up to 4 weeks. Allergic reactions, redness and itch. Ketoconazole, topical Nizoral topical, extina Apply once daily for 2-3 weeks Burning sensation, irritation, and allergic reaction.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
This is portrayed in the movie apocalypse now. They portray the event the Vietnam war which had many countries imperialistic Vietnam. The war caused the death of millions of people and was very tragic on the Vietnam people and their homeland. This war also had an effect on the soldiers and the horror they witnessed over seas. This movie perfectly captured the idea of the war and what it did to the landscape and people involved in it. Imperialism was a time where countries mainly those in Europe were going around the world and taking over other smaller countries.The main countries that partook in this event were France, Britain, and Spain in no particular order. These countries did not just one day feel like imperialistic their had to be a need for impersonation. This was normally when the country was in need of money, and or other resources they would go any. Veer and do anything to acquire the resource they needed. For example the French were seeking ports to trade goods so the cove red a lot of west Africa coast ensuring they would have large areas of trade.But many areas did not allow countries to come in and steal their land. Many countries had small UN modern militaries setup and even though they could not defeat the modern weapons and soldiers of the invaders many of hem would fight to keep their land. The natives would often through uprisings though often unsuccessful they would try to fight the much better equipped Europeans who would come in and enslave their people. Many nations not only faced trouble with the natives but with the environment as well.Many Europeans were unfamiliar with which plants were harmful or beneficial and in some cases many caught diseases from foreign bugs that they were not prepared to fight off. Many European nations treated the natives of the countries they imperialism as equals France were one country that saw them as such. They were willing o even let some natives become French citizens if they adopted the French language and culture. Some were even given jobs and treated as citizens with the same rights as those in France. But if the natives did not accept their culture and ideas they would be seen as racially inferior.On the other hand the British gave their natives little support due to the idea that independence means independence from Britain. The British even took the natives out of their armies due to their racist and superior ideology. When nations left the countries they had imperialism they left lasting effects on the people and Netscape. While a nation was imperialistic a country they devastated it. They would kill people in public to show their dominance. They would also euthanize the natives because they felt superior.Many times they would mow down large numbers of people with machine guns just for standing up for their rights. These events left the countries devastated. Many crops were taken by the ruling nations and they left nothing for the natives. Many nations also left many people dead with many dead bodies around this attracted parasites and bacteria, which spread diseases. Many of the natives were to beaten to ark to keep their families alive So many of them starved to death. This was a common thing that came with imperialism it was also very well portrayed in the film apocalypse now.Apocalypse now is a film based on a man in the Vietnam war who is sent to kill a fellow soldier who has gone off the deep end. The movie takes place in Vietnam and is very accurate with what they portray. This event follows a Richard Colby who is the officer sent to kill Kurt, the officer who is running his own army in Vietnam and murdering hundreds of people savagely. Joseph Conrad based this Ã¢â¬Å"crazed captainÃ¢â¬ on the character Kurt from the vela Heart of Darkness, but many people feel he is a representation of Tony Poe.
Friday, January 10, 2020
When it comes to the interaction of males and females with social structures in society, a degree of inequality has always been existent. Many times the female gender bears the brunt of these inequalities. Cultural ideologies drive these inequalities, and shape our ways of being and views on lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s situations; particularly evident when it comes to the issue of sexual and reproductive health. These phenomena have gained significant amounts of popularity with the evolution of time. And have also been subject to much social construction. It is from those constructions that the pharmaceuticalization of sexual and reproductive health arose. This essay will look at sexual and reproductive health as social constructs, and discuss the impact of these social constructions on pharmaceuticalization and how they have influenced it. The essay will also explore the differences in how sexual and reproductive health have been pharmaceuticalized in male and females, and the possible reasons behind it Pharmaceuticalization is a process which is intimately linked with medicalisation. In this way these two phenomena could be defined as processes by which more and more of societyÃ¢â¬â¢s social problems have come to be seen and described under medical terms, and hence medical interventions have been put forth as solutions for these problems (Zola, 1983, p. 295). Hence we can say that one is as is by the influence of the other, pharmaceuticalization driving and sustaining medicalisation (Conrad 1981). However the medicalisation of society is as much a result of medicineÃ¢â¬â¢s potential as much as it is societyÃ¢â¬â¢s desire for medicine to use that power (Zola, 1972, p 182). Given this statement, it can therefore be argued that the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas, culturally motivated or otherwise, have a lot to do with the pharmaceuticalization of sexual and reproductive health. Almost as though it is societyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËwishÃ¢â¬â¢ for pharmaceuticalization to exists. Hence we can say that pharmaceuticalization is also in part a process of capitalizing on the views of sexual health and reproduction. The evidence of the existence of the four bodies indicates that the body is not just an excluded or separate entity from social structure. Similar is the case for the meaning attached to the penis in males. It is not just another organ carrying out its designated functions but it carries a lot meaning for the man in society. The penis is not only intimately connected to menÃ¢â¬â¢s sexuality but it is also connected to masculinity and virility. And as with most things that carry meaning in society, the meaning of Ã¢â¬Ëthe proper/perfectÃ¢â¬â¢ penis has been a subject of much social construction. A study(2012) conducted in Australia among 103 women found that the majority of the women preferred or were more attracted to men with larger penises, it was argued that the reason behind that had to do with the famous saying that Ã¢â¬Ëbigger is betterÃ¢â¬â¢. This comes upon a time were sex has increasingly become used for recreation rather that procreation. Hence we see hear reports of penis enlargement pills and surgical procedures that can bring forth that kind of penis which is desired by the men and their women. In contrast however, we find that womenÃ¢â¬â¢s sexual health has not been pharmaceuticalised to the extend it has been in men. Perhaps it has to do with the old age stereotype that women are passive and fragile. This notion links into the idea of sex in a way that the man is the one who is most active during the sexual act. And hence the one who carries the responsibility for the sexual climax of both himself and his partner. And it is because of this pressure to perform that more and more men are using pharmaceutical methods in order to acquire Ã¢â¬Ëthe perfect penisÃ¢â¬â¢ to do the Ã¢â¬Ëperfect jobÃ¢â¬â¢, proving their masculinity in the process. This ties in with the use of Viagra in older males. Another interesting factor is the wide commercialization of the male condom as a form of sexual health in the context of HIV/AIDS, whereas the female condom is to some extend looked down upon by both male and females, UK study (1997). We also find that female sexual health has not been commercialized to the extend it has been in males. The Johannesburg CBD for example, is crowded with posters at all corners advertising penis enlargement resources and guaranteeing a Ã¢â¬Ëbetter, bigger penisÃ¢â¬â¢; the long term effects of which are not well known, similarly the credibility thereof. Among all these posters I have yet to witness an advert for female sexual health. And you find that even men in the prime of their youth use these penile enlargement resources, debunking the stereotype that it utilization of these resources is by aged men. It is not to say however that women do not use sexual enhancement pharmaceutical products. Whereas in women it is found that the use of sexual enhancement resources is done most by older women, a majority of which have been through menopause. When we come to sexual reproductive health however, we find that there is an interesting shift in positions. It is women who are often put under the spotlight of pharmaceutical companies. Again this can be said to have arose because of the common stereotype Ã¢â¬Ëthe weaker female bodyÃ¢â¬â¢ has to be the one with the issue when confronted with infertility. So the pharmaceutical companies position themselves to target women with solutions for sexual reproductive health. Here we see medicalization, whereby women are encouraged to go for regular pap smears to reduce the risk of cervical cancer and infertility in the future. This pressure on sexual health may be said to result from the fact that women are only fertile up to a certain age whereas men can be fertile till the day they die. This essay argued the extends to which male and female sexual and reproductive ability have been medicalised and pharmaceuticalized. I extended my exploration to the possible reasons behind the approaches that may have influenced this differences in the degrees of pharmaceutilisation. In addition my analysis showed how these different approaches are influenced by socio-cultural factors.